Flora of Mediterranean-Influenced Lowlands and Islands

ALEPPO PINE (Pinus halepensis); widespread OLIVE (O/ea)

CYPRESSES (Cupressus)·, mark chapels, graveyards KOLIMARO [Gr.] (Arbutus)] fruit formerly made into ouzo

JUNIPER (Juniperus [many species]); most common in Crete, Dhodhekanisos,


HOLLY OAK, KERMES OAK (Quercus ilex, Q. coccifera) thrive in same conditions^

as above—rocky hillsides VALONEA OAK (O. aegilops); most common oak BROOMS (Spartium and Calycotome)·, spring blooming, fragrant BAY LAUREL (Laurus) HEATH (Erica)

TREE-OF-HEAVEN (Alianthus); malodorous OLEANDER (Nerium) mark stream beds WILLOW (Salix); prefer running streams PLANE (Platanus); mark springs; become huge

CRETAN PALM (Phoenix)·, select seashore locales only PRICKLY-PEAR (Opuntia); autumn fruit; animal fodder

Low-Altitude Wildflowers

ANEMONE (Anemone)·, spring IRIS (Iris)·, spring

LILIES (Lilium)·, spring; yellow or white POPPIES (Papaver)·, spring, fallow fields ROCK ROSE (Cistus)·, spring; dry sunny slopes CYCLAMEN (Cyclamen persicum)·, spring, white, part shade DRAGON AURUM (Dracunculus); spring; foul odor attracts pollinators CYCLAMEN (Cyclamen graecum)·, autumn, pink, widespread STERNBERGIA (Sternbergia)·, autumn; yellow; loves rock interstices, especially at ancient ruins

SEA-SQUILL (Urginea maritime)·, autumn, meter-high white flower spikes, in disturbed areas

HERBS; thyme, oregano, basil, mint, sage, “mountain tea” (type of sage), marjoram, rosemary

Flora of the Middle Altitudes and Alpine Zones

BEECH (Fagus); dominant species in Pindhos, Magnisia, Makedhonia, up to 1900 m BLACK PINE (Pinus heldreichii)·, highest growing, to 2300 m, in Pindhos, Olymbos,

Makedhonia SILVER FIR (Abies pectinata); northern regions

BLACK PINE (Pinus nigra)·, range includes Crete, Peloponnisos plus bulk of mainland

SCOTS PINE (Pinus silvestris)·, small plantations in north MAPLE (Acer)·, isolated specimens, usually ASH (Fraxinus); isolated specimens WHITE POPLAR (Populus alba)·, isolated specimens

SWEET CHESTNUT (Kastanea sativa)·, widespread at middle altitudes, especially Magnisia

CEPHALLONIAN FIR (Abies cephalonica)·, range includes Evvia, Sterea and

Peloponnisos plus namesake island WILD FRUITS; apple, pear, plum, brambles, wild rose CLEMATIS (Clematis)·, twining vine; fuzzy seed coat BRACKEN FERN (Pteridium)·, ubiquitous in forest and pasture

Mid- and High-Altitude Wildflowers

GLADIOLUS (Gladiolus)·, spring

TULIP (Tulipa); spring; mostly reddish

VIOLA (Viola); spring; lavender to yellow

CROCUS (Crocus)·, spring; few species

BELLFLOWER (Campanula); summer; in mountains only

WILD CARNATION (Dianthus)’, as above

RED LILY (Lilium chalcedonium); summer; brilliant red; Sterea

(No English common name) (Carlina); giant composite; flush with ground in high

Pindhos, Olymbos; bracts close in moist conditions AUTUMN CROCUS (Colchicum); autumn; lavender, white, purple (TRUE) CROCUS (Crocus)·, autumn, most species


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